Another MAIT Cell Superpower Uncovered


Scientists at La Jolla Institute for Immunology (LJI) are investigating a talented type of T cell.

Most T cells only work in the person who made them. Your T cells fight threats by responding to molecular fragments that belong to a pathogen—but only when these molecules are bound with markers that come from your own tissues. Your influenza-fighting T cells can’t help your neighbor, and vice versa.

“However, we all have T cells that do not obey these rules,” says LJI Professor and President Emeritus Mitchell Kronenberg, Ph.D. “One of these cell types is mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells.”

Now Kronenberg and his LJI colleagues have uncovered another MAIT cell superpower: MAIT cells can recognize the same markers whether they come from humans or mice. Kronenberg calls this finding “astounding.” “Humans diverged from mice in evolution 60 million years ago,” he says.

This new research, published in Science Immunology, sheds light on the genes and nutrients that give MAIT cells their fighting power. The findings are an important step toward one day harnessing these cells to treat infectious diseases and improve cancer immunotherapies.

“Because MAIT cells are the same across individuals, they could more easily be used in cell therapies, where, in principle, my MAIT cells could be given to you,” says Kronenberg.

Want more breaking news?

Subscribe to Technology Networks’ daily newsletter, delivering breaking science news straight to your inbox every day.

Subscribe for FREE

The new study also opens the door to exploiting MAIT cells to improve cellular therapies. “If we could make normal T cells more like MAIT cells, maybe we could make them act faster and more vigorously to combat any type of infection or cancer,” says study co-first author Gabriel Ascui, a UC San Diego graduate student in LJI’s Kronenberg Lab.

Why MAIT cells are special

Kronenberg was initially interested in MAIT cells because of their unexpected speed. Typical T cells need a few days to develop in the thymus and adapt to fighting new threats. MAIT cells are much faster because they can respond to more generic markers of infection, rather than hunting for very specific tissue-type markers. For MAIT cells, a red flag is a red flag, no matter who is waving it.

This lack of specificity makes MAIT cells similar to the immune system’s first-responder cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, which make up the “innate” immune system. “MAIT cells have this ‘innate-like’ characteristic,” says Ascui. “They’re like your first line of defense.” In fact, MAIT cells tend to gather in tissues like the lungs and intestines, where the body is under constant threat from airborne and foodborne pathogens.

The new study shows that MAIT cells don’t just recognize a range of markers within one person. Instead, these odd T cells can “see” markers shared between humans—and even between species. Scientists call these kinds of shared markers “conserved.” There has been no reason for the markers to change over the eons, so they remain the same across related species.

But just because these MAIT cells look the same between species, doesn’t mean they fight pathogens—or make energy—in exactly the same ways.

Why look at mouse cells?

Comparing human and mouse MAIT cells is important for guiding future studies where mice can serve as useful animal models to study exactly how these cells combat pathogens.

Kronenberg, Ascui, and their colleagues used single-cell sequencing and other tools to compare differences in gene expression pathways between human and mouse MAIT cells. The scientists found that mice have two different kinds of MAIT cells, which produce different inflammatory molecules, called cytokines. One kind of MAIT cell, which the scientists call MAIT1, produces a lot of a cytokine called interferon-gamma. The other kind of the MAIT cell, called MAIT 17, produces a lot of a cytokine called interleukin-17.

These cytokines help the MAIT cells take aim at different threats. MAIT1 cells are better at targeting viruses, while MAIT17 cells are better at targeting bacteria.

The same is true for human MAIT cells. A recent Nature Cell Biology study from the Kronenberg Lab, co-led by LJI Instructor and Immunometabolism Core Director Tom Riffelmacher, Ph.D., shows that human MAIT cells also split into MAIT1 and MAIT17 types.

In the new study, the team found that MAIT cells from both species are more capable of taking up and storing fat, compared with typical T cells. This finding suggests MAIT cells are more dependent on this nutrient for energy. This discovery is also in line with previous work in the Kronenberg Lab showing that some human MAIT cells depend on fat to fight pathogens.

The key difference between the species was that human MAIT cells tend to produce more of their respective cytokines, making them more “defined” than the mouse MAIT1 and MAIT17 cells.

When mice live like us

The scientists needed to know—was this difference in human and mouse MAIT cells linked to genetic differences or to our different habitats? Lab mice, such as those cared for at LJI, are housed in ultra-clean vivariums. Their food is blasted in an autoclave to kill pathogens, and their water, toys, and cages are kept as sterile as possible.

Kronenberg and Ascui were curious—do mice living in less-controlled environments show differences in MAIT cell function? The team collaborated with UC San Diego scientists to study MAIT cells from mice kept in so-called “dirty” conditions, similar to a pet store environment. Their research suggests MAIT cells from these mice have even more in common with human MAIT cells, especially when it came to their MAIT1 cells, which produced more interferon-gamma than lab mouse MAIT1 cells.

“Pet stores aren’t dirty in the conventional sense” says Kronenberg. “But part of the idea is that the ‘dirty’ mice are living in an environment—with more microbes and immune system challenges—that’s a little closer to human environments.”

The team also compared MAIT cells found in different parts of the body, such as the blood, thymus (where T cells, including MAIT cells, develop), and the lung and spleen (where MAIT cells camp out). They discovered that MAIT cells still in the thymus look very similar between humans and mice (“dirty” or not); however, MAIT cells from the lungs and blood are more different between humans and lab mice.

MAIT cells from the “dirty” mice fell between the two groups, adding to the evidence that more natural-like environments change how MAIT cells develop and learn to target disease.

“Environmental, as well as genetic differences, shape the species differences in these cells,” says Kronenberg.

What does this mean for clinical research?

The new study gives scientists a sort of answer key, a list of genetic signatures to tell MAIT cells apart depending on the species and tissues they come from. Going forward, the team is interested in whether they can prompt typical T cells to express similar genetic signatures.

“If we could make normal cells more ‘innate,’ like MAIT cells, perhaps we could improve t cell therapy for cancer,” says Ascui. “That’s one avenue we’re looking at.”

Kronenberg is also interested in whether scientists can modify MAIT cells to actually decrease levels of IL-17 in the body. Although IL17 helps fight infections, some T cells produce IL-17 against the wrong targets, triggering harmful inflammation and even autoimmune disease.

“There are cases where IL-17 can be a bad actor,” says Kronenberg. “So there are cases where we might want to induce more MAIT17 cells, expand their population, but we’d also like to find ways to prevent them from arising in situations where they might not be what we want.”

Reference: Chandra S, Ascui G, Riffelmacher T, et al. Transcriptomes and metabolism define mouse and human MAIT cell populations. Science Immunol. 2023;8(89):eabn8531. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abn8531

This article has been republished from the following materials. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.



Source link

519 thoughts on “Another MAIT Cell Superpower Uncovered

  1. Bottomm brewery rockWennona wired pussyGirl on girl anal playOlder womdn showing pusay vidsVery fat assGinna
    lynn bikiniHenttai succubuhs fuckingLsbian love – mother daughterSex and the ciity the movie 2Masturbate with dogHug dilso
    galleryHottt lesbiwn girlsAnal celebrity sex videoMatuure big penisForced group seex een swallowOrgasm robot tird fucked
    byHot amateur guys . OrgFuck myy mouthFieldd strop reminngton model 870National ccampaign too support
    teen and unnplanned pregnancyNuude oiledBoy sticks dick inn boy buttTeen motivationMarilyn mpnroe ude inn swimming poolGay kaa sutra tips50 art model teen topFreee piic
    shgaved vaginaTrojan ribed annd studded condomsNked porn older
    womanSnoog dogg sexsual eruptionPictures oof faous catc nakedNovvember 7th craigslist scort attorney generalFreee hentai gay sex video https://bit.ly/3mpCSvV Female xxx sleepingPiiss cum drinkingKoobb porn site https://bit.ly/36uiYsz Lebnanese sguffed chicken breast recipesSexy tv drama pakistanBobb
    gay washtanaw https://bit.ly/3qKph1s Lexbian shemale shemalesVivastreet london escortsFat asss xnx https://bit.ly/3l8qa2V Jackie chwn adventurees drqwn sexInterracial submissive used wifeTelecaters in hardcor https://tinyurl.com/2j3ypljm Lisst
    of internnet porn starsHot lesbians nudeVintzge piaget watces https://bit.ly/37dHhvf Adult viodeo downloaderDianetics sexGroup gaay mastjrbation https://tinyurl.com/yz5nqybx Skyee
    blue pornProshetic penis used inn filmCute nude een porno video clipos https://tinyurl.com/yh6hpjez Lesbian arab nudeHow to give fingrr sexMale eroti dancing https://cutt.ly/7CS0D2z Grandma who love throat fuckingFreee
    streaming mocies sexHot small breasts aand tanned https://bit.ly/3ykOSUn Chocago
    ssex offeneders registryHer first cum swallowing lessonOgguide shemale and gijrl https://bit.ly/3lJMzCE Driver licemse
    teen texasHell kitty underwear fetishVirtual hair stles
    for teens https://cutt.ly/LUovb1h Best pporn aliveAdultt education andd mcdonaldsLive foot fetish camss https://cutt.ly/vUmDuG1 Jemma massey nudeAdullt forreskin infectionNaked spordtsmen bulge https://bit.ly/3hP4CqA Hairy ebny imahesAmy winters tgpAree
    uncutt cocks etter looking https://cutt.ly/1UJfUU0 Cance
    pichnic fuckUnprocessed virgin conut oilDo wopmen prefer biig
    penises https://bit.ly/2OK2yW6 Magazine ad stripsP cupp breastAmazinmg tedn blowjob https://bit.ly/3iM9qPI Tantric
    anwl massageLarge cumshotDruink fck pparties https://cutt.ly/OUKVQox Sexyy mxicans
    girlsSw 1976 satx adult chatGirl drnks 20 loads of cum https://bit.ly/3k5h2O4 The great dane dvd
    pornMohave vintage motorcycleHavng ssex on meducne bawll https://bit.ly/34g88og Extreme toy sexx shannenCalf lickJanet jackson nude clips https://bit.ly/3jiSIrxx Qualjty storiws erotic neiceWhat hass two thjmbs bob kelsoBigg boob blondes vids fee sikte https://bit.ly/3EuO6q9 Adupt andd dirrty jokesVintage baseball pennantsYungg girlos sex https://tinyurl.com/yh53qyyv Public poser nudeSterile
    processing indicator stripsUgly skinny bitchh tgpp https://bit.ly/3j6e5fl Teen girls
    tudy bibleSilicon penis injectionsNiki taylor bikini https://bit.ly/36x8Mzzx Breatt tgp
    galleriesLiive sex weeb cameraOosterdam nudee photos
    https://cutt.ly/EUoyH0j Adylt tooys c batteriesFree stfreaming
    raver gloryholeTeen suicide blaack metzl https://bit.ly/2SFa9Ut Stamina-rx seex on thhe beachSperdm edibleBloow job
    cosmo https://bit.ly/3vm9BUm Drenfhed tgpSex tape gina lisaSexyy
    undercoer https://bit.ly/3xudQir Runner sexWhole head in her assMississippi sex reyab
    clinics https://bit.ly/3x9j1nR Gerard having sex way womanCuums in minute movieHannd jobs videos
    ffree https://bit.ly/3m2FfC5 Goodd teen girly moviesPhotographer for takiung sexy picturesMasturbation annd psa
    test schores https://bit.ly/34WCBYm Mary kate an aashley nakedAdult porno
    picture oold men yung women photoo galleriesRobert bloack mmal erotic books https://tinyurl.com/ybudwwak Inuyasha kkagome
    hentai flah gameHairy women-nudeMovie 3d real timne naked eeye https://bit.ly/3DpKW5u Antidepressants and sexual behaviorPicss off myy beautiful wifre sexyCum swallowing porn tubee
    https://bit.ly/3fOL5XC Xxxx porn fisting video torrentAmateurs ildDegrading fuxk movies https://cutt.ly/sU8W7im Terns crerit rating goopd scoreAdult
    grateful troubleChicks having orgasms https://cutt.ly/nUmXpRr Punisjed black cockSexy slwve trainingVronica caine cumshot https://tinyurl.com/4bk4rxb2 Tiny ass pumpedFucking sex hard coreHot black weet pusy https://bit.ly/3dhY8zi Roman’s holiday gayCatt fucking peopleLiteroica facials https://tinyurl.com/2f3dgsbo How lon do sperm cells liveFree sex video hugarianDry hawnd jobb
    name https://bit.ly/3eQnhkF I love luv pantyhoseAsian semi longhairCan benign breast tumors brcome cancxerous https://bit.ly/3jKZPXf Fuull mouth teenHeer fat
    titsHuge gay thug dck https://bit.ly/3256urw Pink glopry holesEscape strip15
    nudes https://tinyurl.com/3w2xppjn Hilos maya porn starStrapon fucking
    lezbosMovies on how to hwve sex https://bit.ly/3xam0Px Ass cleavage 7 dvdExcerpts
    froom ppleasure storiesAddult whack to ssack game https://tinyurl.com/y9kbgae4 Havve man maan minors older sexx
    whyEastwrn european porn actressesAnall vorre writing https://bit.ly/3zaZK7l Kasumi
    hentai artMedela in stule advanced breaast pumpSmaall teen handjob tuybe
    https://tinyurl.com/2hyrbgoe Female oon female seex
    torrentVintage asian postersGreat gay guy sexx https://cutt.ly/aU4VpNU Vintage hor handle carving setWifee sex video for money freeBeautiy milf mastuebates guuy https://bit.ly/3crHZ9e X north adultSex
    erotic ffree vvideo clipsHystereectomy sxual femwle orgasamKarup
    sensual teenBreeast caffeiine lumpMotheer geet fuck bby hher sonDickk evans on the
    michigazn roadGirls iin fyck me pumpsShe-male nudeBeautiful women giving
    footjobsCandis michellle sex tapeStraight naked maleNina senicar nude freeSaggy tits xnxxSelf fuckingFake celeb pijcs nudeMaan hhas sexx wifh goat xxxWhyy is myy dikck so smallHuugh hhefner girs nudeFacial cream for wrinkles what’s bestBeauttiful nakled teen maleMalle wrrestling nudesEmily booth naked galleryParty orgy group tgpLevel 19 twink huntwr 2.3Lesbian photographjer
    weddingSodomizse my black assFreee amatteur porn spy mpegsDemo dee fil pornoVintage gillete techGayy
    amwtuer galleriesFree livee bdsm camsPics hard assMature idealsMatur skirts seductionFreee hardore moviesMatures tied annd gaggedAmateur harry pussyFemdom women iin chargeMad cobra wett dreamsFace sex woman100 frse xxxLinens hentai
    beed sheetsWitherspoon nudeBathroiom bondageBikini top for saleVagina genitaliaCock fucking slutty
    teenFree blaxk bbw nasty whore galleriesJanna coca pirn tube

  2. Sweeet asian boysAngel rdhead slu shortAssian groceries
    ft lauderdaleGreaat mature boobs on a tubeYoung teeen maribelThhong and panryhose tgpAsan import models forumVibrator video samplesMtgg vintage declists junje 20 2008Asiian tit jobPamzla andeson tommy lee fuckingTotaly nude vidsLife
    of a femaale pornstarOv guide adult tubesitesVintge photo dogsGuy fucking girl hardIvanovc ikini picsGayy guys having fuun videosSisteds forced ass fuckingMale gynoo has sex wjth patientsNude embarassing storiesSexyy massage
    moviesSeexy feet moviesHentai blizzKim llil naked nude photoDark breast hairFrree
    porn oof gang bangsThe geatest ass you pornDr dooliha breast augmentaation jacksonille flDiryy aass cumPics of girl nakked
    at spring breakTv sation with sex and city rerunsDiamnd necklace vvintage https://cutt.ly/VUcxScx Connecticut ggay mafriage decisionClips
    amateur youngFat assesdand huge tuts https://bit.ly/2VfuSTB Free shemale cumshot movies categoriesFacual moisturizers witth retinolMaure lesbasin mlvie gallery https://bit.ly/3eDE8sb Laana amore independebt escortAmateur
    kealy tubesNaked burglar louiswiana https://bit.ly/3veg84S Vidss vids vids pornGay male super modelsMy wife wants a 10 inch penis https://bit.ly/3r5z0kL Mississauga strip clubsLatino gagginng onn black cockVegan non lubricated condomm https://tinyurl.com/j5m3zku3 Urinary tract inferction stripsAnal cream piie gangangInteracial gang bwng sexx pics https://bit.ly/3PV9lY9 Meeting asuan inn atlanta
    georgiaTwink ball sacksFree blonde twinjk gallerie https://bit.ly/3fEovRe Esxort
    bunny londonTighht milf gets fuckedStep son fuchking poen videks
    https://tinyurl.com/2fxwfpk3 Biseexual chatsKim possible and shego xxxTeen datiing us https://bit.ly/3wzOKhE Interracial romance
    in mption picturesSheer bikiji babeNude ggay guyy vidxeo https://bit.ly/3bLLkAg Sweet nude hottiesAmateur strrapon videosSohtheast askan mental health https://tinyurl.com/ykesm4kt Young fucking babesAmatehr latina porn videoTeen girlss forcsd ssex https://bit.ly/3qCY2HF Worlds biggest fattest creamie gangbangTobya harding sex vidioVidwo publiic
    trai stunnihg bonde fucks https://bit.ly/377znU6 Nys
    adult homes for tthe mentallky illOrlpando swingers blogPictures
    off stripperella nude https://bit.ly/2SwtWsX Pimmp mmy black teenn shamiquaHitman contracts nuee
    patchMasturbating vibrator video https://bit.ly/3AjijXt Barbie
    bikini lannny sexyDoctor pregnaqnt porn thumbsOrgy porn gallerey https://bit.ly/2SlucuS Freee
    blowjob movies sponsorsSex wwith a virgin guyKramer
    vvs kramer nude ssection https://bit.ly/36lP4VU World record most sexual partners videoParis hilton breast jobb implantsGta vc nakmed chezt pcc https://bit.ly/3la6lZ5 Uncircumciwed gayMy very first ganmg bang 2Beer
    can shoved upp her asss https://bit.ly/3z7LZpN Frree my pussyBondage + stoore + collarsEscort lewiston mee https://tinyurl.com/3pbb43m5 Wommen goo wild male stripperShemalee lsbians bareOnline nude hktties https://bit.ly/2TBdmkbq Steve huunter
    and dick wagner sessio workKieer khightley nude fakke
    galleryFree amateur sybian orgasm https://tinyurl.com/5zeut264 Hentai cleavage english
    dubb pirte bayHaardcore porn search engineTeeen boy fuck vidos https://bit.ly/3xpRzEK Hoow tto
    dominatyrix fwmdom gamesIs artie fro glee gayFree full length
    hoot mmom porn https://bit.ly/3qZk4Fp Chinnease girl taakes dick in assGay slavesFree nudfe
    pic julianne moore https://bit.ly/3dkdW4B Freesexy
    lessbian pornAyeshaa takia sexy picTerrda xxx https://cutt.ly/eUgMztN Mature
    and videoBondage g spotsBiig bboob messejse slutload
    https://bit.ly/32IhUBg Girl disappointed sexx videoYoung nude
    pre glamourVintage hiwatt cystom https://cutt.ly/fUL8iwF Yunho masturbatePeefume
    labsl vintageFree naied picss oof hairy
    girls https://bit.ly/31hqweR Frnch hairy girlsEmloyment equiality sexual orientationRandy watsson sexual cnocolate https://bit.ly/3p4ZPoos Teeen boyy models
    nudeCocck sucking cum gaggerErootic adult dating serfice https://bit.ly/3uINMy1 Boys
    haveing sex togetherTiifa oral sexVintage forfd caar wiring harnesses https://bit.ly/3hlIpla Solidium stripperDickk zimmer
    and nnew jerswey primaryAlexis anderson maxturbation instructor https://bit.ly/3wyDvWx Fucked
    by analballsBlck lesbian dommeBaaby formula that tastes
    like breast milk https://bit.ly/3ibXXsD Skyy blacck sucks
    til iit cumSilky thumper lesbianAshley fire nhde https://bit.ly/3fdYmIR Bikini
    karate babes game downloadFantady erotic storiesFree sex video noo membership requirewd https://tinyurl.com/ygg39rqj Mafure hardcore lesbianLocal teen cahtsLil waynne nakmed photos https://bit.ly/3xL2nLg Teaching
    a guy too have sexOraal facial surgeons of ohioCum on french pusszy https://cutt.ly/1YVGsjS Cooking skibless turkey
    breastPorn stream gemini bootyAlkan sex https://tinyurl.com/yc7wrvsb Weaning toddler off breastGirls who likee pantyhoseLump besidee vagina https://cutt.ly/bUb9yCO Using a breast pump for inductionRoseelawn indiana strip clubThin lesbians havinng sex https://tinyurl.com/ycq6jt2m Young male models nakedNuude girlfriend
    vacationIgggy pop pussy walk https://bit.ly/3pMKuJO Cartroon disney
    grati hentaiGood model nudeAdult dating love songs https://tinyurl.com/yf63f8v6 Ivyy summer
    nudeNake house leaning westwordAsian escort in inbcall nyyc https://bit.ly/3dt9gbv Flash gorddon – comic strip characterAverate dult dpse
    for norcuronCockk suckijg beach https://tinyurl.com/yjn63pfp Vintagee sexy
    videoHot blonde cock suckrs picsPandea bear loss of opposable tumbs https://tinyurl.com/ycpsxcat Milf suspendersNudde mae construction workerChristina aguileraa fake nude pic https://tinyurl.com/ya9eqy4k Vinttage grundiig radio ffor saleBlqack women nakedSrip cluibs
    iin providence rhode island https://bit.ly/3qIpgeC Jessica lynn big assPictuyrew off a threesomeNawty lesbos 2010 jelsoft enterlrises lttd https://tinyurl.com/2gzlv8hv Girls from blacktown nssw
    nakedTeenn nibletsGay girlks kissing in thhe tubBestt swingers
    webitesBreast cancer day threeBreeast diploma enlargment
    naturalFrench porn stars 90sHot gay fnal fantasyNo string sexAdult sexx webchatFreee iinterracial gang bang picsPornstar
    lucie theodorovaBehnoosh bakhtiari sexyFreee ebony orn video full lengthTeenn
    princess costumePorn surrprise tubeFigs aas a facial maskFreee streaming latina amateur3way oral sexBreast computer
    mouseKathie llee giffod hardcore fakesLesbiian afrian studentsSwingerss pporn free straming videoBarre bondage footDaniel powter gayAmmel hot vid sports sexyMature grannjys sucking
    piocsReal mature lesbiansTeeen model blogHealth aand safety boobsBig bboob playby playmateRacked
    fuckedAbised boobs hentai 3dPonds faciawl productsPantyose threesome dildoRedpoint xxxAssian baby dolkl
    toy10 best facial surgery physiciansBelinda carlisle nude
    iin playboyImae nude modelAdult book stokres port arthurBottom topography chesapeake bayBukkake removfe mosaicTube porn momGay bonedr penisLonndon transvestite clubAult free
    liks pornTeenahe sexx taoes fro freeMobies best scenes sexCoock
    sex smal

  3. top 10 pharmacies in india [url=https://indianpharmacy.shop/#]indian pharmacy[/url] Online medicine order indianpharmacy.shop

  4. canada online pharmacy [url=https://canadianpharmacy.pro/#]Pharmacies in Canada that ship to the US[/url] canada drugs reviews canadianpharmacy.pro

  5. online canadian pharmacy review [url=http://canadianpharmacy.pro/#]canadapharmacyonline com[/url] safe canadian pharmacy canadianpharmacy.pro

  6. Wow, awesome weblog format! How long have
    you been running a blog for? you made running a blog look easy.

    The full look of your website is excellent, as neatly as the content material!
    You can see similar here sklep

  7. Hey! Do you know if they make any plugins to help with Search Engine Optimization? I’m trying to get
    my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very
    good success. If you know of any please share. Kudos!

    You can read similar art here: Sklep internetowy

  8. Howdy! Do you know if they make any plugins to assist with SEO?

    I’m trying to get my site to rank for some targeted keywords
    but I’m not seeing very good results. If you know of any please share.

    Cheers! You can read similar text here: Backlinks List

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *